This document provides information on common bootloaders found on micro-controllers that Klipper supports.

The bootloader is 3rd-party software that runs on the micro-controller when it is first powered on. It is typically used to flash a new application (eg, Klipper) to the micro-controller without requiring specialized hardware. Unfortunately, there is no industry wide standard for flashing a micro-controller, nor is there a standard bootloader that works across all micro-controllers. Worse, it is common for each bootloader to require a different set of steps to flash an application.

If one can flash a bootloader to a micro-controller then one can generally also use that mechanism to flash an application, but care should be taken when doing this as one may inadvertently remove the bootloader. In contrast, a bootloader will generally only permit a user to flash an application. It is therefore recommended to use a bootloader to flash an application where possible.

This document attempts to describe common bootloaders, the steps needed to flash a bootloader, and the steps needed to flash an application. This document is not an authoritative reference; it is intended as a collection of useful information that the Klipper developers have accumulated.

AVR micro-controllers

In general, the Arduino project is a good reference for bootloaders and flashing procedures on the 8-bit Atmel Atmega micro-controllers. In particular, the “boards.txt” file: https://github.com/arduino/Arduino/blob/1.8.5/hardware/arduino/avr/boards.txt is a useful reference.

To flash a bootloader itself, the AVR chips require an external hardware flashing tool (which communicates with the chip using SPI). This tool can be purchased (for example, do a web search for “avr isp”, “arduino isp”, or “usb tiny isp”). It is also possible to use another Arduino or Raspberry Pi to flash an AVR bootloader (for example, do a web search for “program an avr using raspberry pi”). The examples below are written assuming an “AVR ISP Mk2” type device is in use.

The “avrdude” program is the most common tool used to flash atmega chips (both bootloader flashing and application flashing).

Atmega2560

This chip is typically found in the “Arduino Mega” and is very common in 3d printer boards.

To flash the bootloader itself use something like:

wget 'https://github.com/arduino/Arduino/raw/1.8.5/hardware/arduino/avr/bootloaders/stk500v2/stk500boot_v2_mega2560.hex'

avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega2560 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -e -u -U lock:w:0x3F:m -U efuse:w:0xFD:m -U hfuse:w:0xD8:m -U lfuse:w:0xFF:m
avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega2560 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -U flash:w:stk500boot_v2_mega2560.hex
avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega2560 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -U lock:w:0x0F:m

To flash an application use something like:

avrdude -cwiring -patmega2560 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -D -Uflash:w:out/klipper.elf.hex:i

Atmega1280

This chip is typically found in earlier versions of the “Arduino Mega”.

To flash the bootloader itself use something like:

wget 'https://github.com/arduino/Arduino/raw/1.8.5/hardware/arduino/avr/bootloaders/atmega/ATmegaBOOT_168_atmega1280.hex'

avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega1280 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -e -u -U lock:w:0x3F:m -U efuse:w:0xF5:m -U hfuse:w:0xDA:m -U lfuse:w:0xFF:m
avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega1280 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -U flash:w:ATmegaBOOT_168_atmega1280.hex
avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega1280 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -U lock:w:0x0F:m

To flash an application use something like:

avrdude -carduino -patmega1280 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b57600 -D -Uflash:w:out/klipper.elf.hex:i

Atmega1284p

This chip is commonly found in “Melzi” style 3d printer boards.

To flash the bootloader itself use something like:

wget 'https://github.com/Lauszus/Sanguino/raw/1.0.2/bootloaders/optiboot/optiboot_atmega1284p.hex'

avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega1284p -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -e -u -U lock:w:0x3F:m -U efuse:w:0xFD:m -U hfuse:w:0xDE:m -U lfuse:w:0xFF:m
avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega1284p -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -U flash:w:optiboot_atmega1284p.hex
avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega1284p -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -U lock:w:0x0F:m

To flash an application use something like:

avrdude -carduino -patmega1284p -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -D -Uflash:w:out/klipper.elf.hex:i

Note that a number of “Melzi” style boards come preloaded with a bootloader that uses a baud rate of 57600. In this case, to flash an application use something like this instead:

avrdude -carduino -patmega1284p -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b57600 -D -Uflash:w:out/klipper.elf.hex:i

At90usb1286

This document does not cover the method to flash a bootloader to the At90usb1286 nor does it cover general application flashing to this device.

The Teensy++ device from pjrc.com comes with a proprietary bootloader. It requires a custom flashing tool from https://github.com/PaulStoffregen/teensy_loader_cli. One can flash an application with it using something like:

teensy_loader_cli --mcu=at90usb1286 out/klipper.elf.hex -v

Atmega168

The atmega168 has limited flash space. If using a bootloader, it is recommended to use the Optiboot bootloader. To flash that bootloader use something like:

wget 'https://github.com/arduino/Arduino/raw/1.8.5/hardware/arduino/avr/bootloaders/optiboot/optiboot_atmega168.hex'

avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega168 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -e -u -U lock:w:0x3F:m -U efuse:w:0x04:m -U hfuse:w:0xDD:m -U lfuse:w:0xFF:m
avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega168 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -U flash:w:optiboot_atmega168.hex
avrdude -cavrispv2 -patmega168 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -U lock:w:0x0F:m

To flash an application via the Optiboot bootloader use something like:

avrdude -carduino -patmega168 -P/dev/ttyACM0 -b115200 -D -Uflash:w:out/klipper.elf.hex:i

SAM3 micro-controllers (Arduino Due)

It is not common to use a bootloader with the SAM3 mcu. The chip itself has a ROM that allows the flash to be programmed from 3.3V serial port or from USB.

To enable the ROM, the “erase” pin is held high during a reset, which erases the flash contents, and causes the ROM to run. On an Arduino Due, this sequence can be accomplished by setting a baud rate of 1200 on the “programming usb port” (the USB port closest to the power supply).

The code at https://github.com/shumatech/BOSSA can be used to program the SAM3. It is recommended to use version 1.9 or later.

To flash an application use something like:

bossac -U -p /dev/ttyACM0 -a -e -w out/klipper.bin -v -b
bossac -U -p /dev/ttyACM0 -R

SAM4 micro-controllers (Duet Wifi)

It is not common to use a bootloader with the SAM4 mcu. The chip itself has a ROM that allows the flash to be programmed from 3.3V serial port or from USB.

To enable the ROM, the “erase” pin is held high during a reset, which erases the flash contents, and causes the ROM to run.

The code at https://github.com/shumatech/BOSSA can be used to program the SAM4. It is necessary to use version 1.8.0 or higher.

To flash an application use something like:

bossac --port=/dev/ttyACM0 -b -U -e -w -v -R out/klipper.bin

SAMD21 micro-controllers (Arduino Zero)

The SAMD21 bootloader is flashed via the ARM Serial Wire Debug (SWD) interface. This is commonly done with a dedicated SWD hardware dongle. Alternatively, one can use a Raspberry Pi with OpenOCD.

To flash a bootloader with OpenOCD use the following chip config:

source [find target/at91samdXX.cfg]

Obtain a bootloader - for example:

wget 'https://github.com/arduino/ArduinoCore-samd/raw/1.8.3/bootloaders/zero/samd21_sam_ba.bin'

Flash with OpenOCD commands similar to:

at91samd bootloader 0
program samd21_sam_ba.bin verify

The most common bootloader on the SAMD21 is the one found on the “Arduino Zero”. It uses an 8KiB bootloader (the application must be compiled with a start address of 8KiB). One can enter this bootloader by double clicking the reset button. To flash an application use something like:

bossac -U -p /dev/ttyACM0 --offset=0x2000 -w out/klipper.bin -v -b -R

In contrast, the “Arduino M0” uses a 16KiB bootloader (the application must be compiled with a start address of 16KiB). To flash an application on this bootloader, reset the micro-controller and run the flash command within the first few seconds of boot - something like:

avrdude -c stk500v2 -p atmega2560 -P /dev/ttyACM0 -u -Uflash:w:out/klipper.elf.hex:i

SAMD51 micro-controllers (Adafruit Metro-M4 and similar)

Like the SAMD21, the SAMD51 bootloader is flashed via the ARM Serial Wire Debug (SWD) interface. To flash a bootloader with OpenOCD on a Raspberry Pi use the following chip config:

source [find target/atsame5x.cfg]

Obtain a bootloader - several bootloaders are available from https://github.com/adafruit/uf2-samdx1/releases/latest. For example:

wget 'https://github.com/adafruit/uf2-samdx1/releases/download/v3.7.0/bootloader-itsybitsy_m4-v3.7.0.bin'

Flash with OpenOCD commands similar to:

at91samd bootloader 0
program bootloader-itsybitsy_m4-v3.7.0.bin verify
at91samd bootloader 16384

The SAMD51 uses a 16KiB bootloader (the application must be compiled with a start address of 16KiB). To flash an application use something like:

bossac -U -p /dev/ttyACM0 --offset=0x4000 -w out/klipper.bin -v -b -R

STM32F103 micro-controllers (Blue Pill devices)

The STM32F103 devices have a ROM that can flash a bootloader or application via 3.3V serial. To access this ROM, one should connect the “boot 0” pin to high and “boot 1” pin to low, and then reset the device. The “stm32flash” package can then be used to flash the device using something like:

stm32flash -w out/klipper.bin -v -g 0 /dev/ttyAMA0

Note that if one is using a Raspberry Pi for the 3.3V serial, the stm32flash protocol uses a serial parity mode which the Raspberry Pi’s “miniuart” does not support. See https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/uart.md for details on enabling the full uart on the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins.

After flashing, set both “boot 0” and “boot 1” back to low so that future resets boot from flash.

STM32F103 with stm32duino bootloader

The “stm32duino” project has a USB capable bootloader - see: https://github.com/rogerclarkmelbourne/STM32duino-bootloader

This bootloader can be flashed via 3.3V serial with something like:

wget 'https://github.com/rogerclarkmelbourne/STM32duino-bootloader/raw/master/binaries/generic_boot20_pc13.bin'

stm32flash -w generic_boot20_pc13.bin -v -g 0 /dev/ttyAMA0

This bootloader uses 8KiB of flash space (the application must be compiled with a start address of 8KiB). Flash an application with something like:

dfu-util -d 1eaf:0003 -a 2 -R -D out/klipper.bin

The bootloader typically runs for only a short period after boot. It may be necessary to time the above command so that it runs while the bootloader is still active (the bootloader will flash a board led while it is running). Alternatively, set the “boot 0” pin to low and “boot 1” pin to high to stay in the bootloader after a reset.

STM32F103 with HID bootloader

The HID bootloader is a compact, driverless bootloader capable of flashing over USB. Also available is a fork with builds specific to the SKR Mini E3 1.2.

For generic STM32F103 boards such as the blue pill it is possible to flash the bootloader via 3.3v serial using stm32flash as noted in the stm32duino section above, substituting the file name for the desired hid bootloader binary (ie: hid_generic_pc13.bin for the blue pill).

It is not possible to use stm32flash for the SKR Mini E3 as the boot0 pin is tied directly to ground and not broken out via header pins. It is recommended to use a STLink V2 with STM32Cubeprogrammer to flash the bootloader. If you don’t have access to a STLink it is also possible to use a Raspberry Pi and OpenOCD with the following chip config:

source [find target/stm32f1x.cfg]

If you wish you can make a backup of the current flash with the following command. Note that it may take some time to complete:

flash read_bank 0 btt_skr_mini_e3_backup.bin

finally, you can flash with commands similar to:

stm32f1x mass_erase 0
program hid_btt_skr_mini_e3.bin verify 0x08000000

NOTES:

  • The example above erases the chip then programs the bootloader. Regardless of the method chosen to flash it is recommended to erase the chip prior to flashing.
  • Prior flashing the SKR Mini E3 with this bootloader you should be aware that you will no longer be able to update firmware via the sdcard.
  • You may need to hold down the reset button on the board while launching OpenOCD. It should display something like:
    Open On-Chip Debugger 0.10.0+dev-01204-gc60252ac-dirty (2020-04-27-16:00)
    Licensed under GNU GPL v2
    For bug reports, read
            http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
    DEPRECATED! use 'adapter speed' not 'adapter_khz'
    Info : BCM2835 GPIO JTAG/SWD bitbang driver
    Info : JTAG and SWD modes enabled
    Info : clock speed 40 kHz
    Info : SWD DPIDR 0x1ba01477
    Info : stm32f1x.cpu: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints
    Info : stm32f1x.cpu: external reset detected
    Info : starting gdb server for stm32f1x.cpu on 3333
    Info : Listening on port 3333 for gdb connections
    

    After which you can release the reset button.

This bootloader requires 2KiB of flash space (the application must be compiled with a start address of 2KiB).

The hid-flash program is used to upload a binary to the bootloader. You can install this software with the following commands:

sudo apt install libusb-1.0
cd ~/klipper/lib/hidflash
make

If the bootloader is running you can flash with something like:

~/klipper/lib/hidflash/hid-flash ~/klipper/out/klipper.bin

alternatively, you can use make flash to flash klipper directly:

make flash FLASH_DEVICE=1209:BEBA

OR if klipper has been previously flashed:

make flash FLASH_DEVICE=/dev/ttyACM0

It may be necessary to manually enter the bootloader, this can be done by setting “boot 0” low and “boot 1” high. On the SKR Mini E3 “Boot 1” is not available, so it may be done by setting pin PA2 low if you flashed “hid_btt_skr_mini_e3.bin”. This pin is labeld “TX0” on the TFT header in the SKR Mini E3’s “PIN” document. There is a ground pin next to PA2 which you can use to pull PA2 low.

STM32F4 micro-controllers (SKR Pro 1.1)

STM32F4 microcontrollers come equipped with a built-in system bootloader capable of flashing over USB (via DFU), 3.3v Serial, and various other methods (see STM Document AN2606 for more information). Some STM32F4 boards, such as the SKR Pro 1.1, are not able to enter the DFU bootloader. The HID bootloader is available for STM32F405/407 based boards should the user prefer flashing over USB over using the sdcard. Note that you may need to configure and build a version specific to your board, a build for the SKR Pro 1.1 is available here.

Unless your board is DFU capable the most accessable flashing method is likely via 3.3v serial, which follows the same procedure as flashing the STM32F103 using stm32flash. For example:

wget https://github.com/Arksine/STM32_HID_Bootloader/releases/download/v0.5-beta/hid_bootloader_SKR_PRO.bin

stm32flash -w hid_bootloader_SKR_PRO.bin -v -g 0 /dev/ttyAMA0

This bootloader requires 16Kib of flash space on the STM32F4 (the application must be compiled with a start address of 16KiB).

As with the STM32F1, the STM32F4 uses the hid-flash tool to upload binaries to the MCU. See the instructions above for details on how to build and use hid-flash.

It may be necessary to manually enter the bootloader, this can be done by setting “boot 0” low, “boot 1” high and plugging in the device. After programming is complete unplug the device and set “boot 1” back to low so the application will be loaded.

LPC176x micro-controllers (Smoothieboards)

This document does not describe the method to flash a bootloader itself - see: http://smoothieware.org/flashing-the-bootloader for further information on that topic.

It is common for Smoothieboards to come with a bootloader from: https://github.com/triffid/LPC17xx-DFU-Bootloader. When using this bootloader the application must be compiled with a start address of 16KiB. The easiest way to flash an application with this bootloader is to copy the application file (eg, out/klipper.bin) to a file named firmware.bin on an SD card, and then to reboot the micro-controller with that SD card.

Running OpenOCD on the Raspberry PI

OpenOCD is a software package that can perform low-level chip flashing and debugging. It can use the GPIO pins on a Raspberry Pi to communicate with a variety of ARM chips.

This section describes how one can install and launch OpenOCD. It is derived from the instructions at: https://learn.adafruit.com/programming-microcontrollers-using-openocd-on-raspberry-pi

Begin by downloading and compiling the software (each step may take several minutes and the “make” step may take 30+ minutes):

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install autoconf libtool telnet
mkdir ~/openocd
cd ~/openocd/
git clone http://openocd.zylin.com/openocd
cd openocd
./bootstrap
./configure --enable-sysfsgpio --enable-bcm2835gpio --prefix=/home/pi/openocd/install
make
make install

Configure OpenOCD

Create an OpenOCD config file:

nano ~/openocd/openocd.cfg

Use a config similar to the following:

# Uses RPi pins: GPIO25 for SWDCLK, GPIO24 for SWDIO, GPIO18 for nRST
source [find interface/raspberrypi2-native.cfg]
bcm2835gpio_swd_nums 25 24
bcm2835gpio_srst_num 18
transport select swd

# Use hardware reset wire for chip resets
reset_config srst_only
adapter_nsrst_delay 100
adapter_nsrst_assert_width 100

# Specify the chip type
source [find target/atsame5x.cfg]

# Set the adapter speed
adapter_khz 40

# Connect to chip
init
targets
reset halt

Wire the Raspberry Pi to the target chip

Poweroff both the the Raspberry Pi and the target chip before wiring! Verify the target chip uses 3.3V prior to connecting to a Raspberry Pi!

Connect GND, SWDCLK, SWDIO, and RST on the target chip to GND, GPIO25, GPIO24, and GPIO18 respectively on the Raspberry Pi.

Then power up the Raspberry Pi and provide power to the target chip.

Run OpenOCD

Run OpenOCD:

cd ~/openocd/
sudo ~/openocd/install/bin/openocd -f ~/openocd/openocd.cfg

The above should cause OpenOCD to emit some text messages and then wait (it should not immediately return to the Unix shell prompt). If OpenOCD exits on its own or if it continues to emit text messages then double check the wiring.

Once OpenOCD is running and is stable, one can send it commands via telnet. Open another ssh session and run the following:

telnet 127.0.0.1 4444

(One can exit telnet by pressing ctrl+] and then running the “quit” command.)

OpenOCD and gdb

It is possible to use OpenOCD with gdb to debug Klipper. The following commands assume one is running gdb on a desktop class machine.

Add the following to the OpenOCD config file:

bindto 0.0.0.0
gdb_port 44444

Restart OpenOCD on the Raspberry Pi and then run the following Unix command on the desktop machine:

cd /path/to/klipper/
gdb out/klipper.elf

Within gdb run:

target remote octopi:44444

(Replace “octopi” with the host name of the Raspberry Pi.) Once gdb is running it is possible to set breakpoints and to inspect registers.